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Biden pilosa L

Biden pilosa L
Biden pilosa L
Bidens pilosa L.
Synonim : Bidens sundaica BI.
Vernacular names : Black Jack, Spanish Needles, Beggar ticks, Cobbler’s, Hareuga (Sunda), Jaringan Ketul (Java)


Biden pilosa L Plant
Description :
1. Often much branched, erect, slightly aromatic, annual herb, up to 1 m tall.
2. Stem 4-angled, often reddish, glabrous or slightly pilose.
3. Root system shallow
4. Leaves opposite, entire to ternate or imparipinnate an if so usually 2-3, rarely 5-jugate, glabrous or shortly hairy on both sides, leaflets dentate-serrate, ovate oblong with cuneate, shortly decurrent base acute apex, 1-12 x 0.5-5.5 cm. Lower leaves ovate with tapered base and acute apex, 1.5 – 7 cm long. Somewhatsheating basaly.


Biden pilosa L Leaf
Flower heads in loose corymbiform or paniculate, terminal or axillary peduncled inflorescences; head heterogamous, radiate, 20-40 flowered, 5-7 mm high, 7-8 mm in diameter; peduncles 1-9 cm long; involucre campanulate, bracts connate at the base; outer in volucral brach herbaceous, narrowly spathulate, more or less acute with recurved tips, margin slightly ciliate, usually glabrous; inner ones elliptic, acute or obtuse, with dark nerves, margin membranous; receptacle flat, paleaceous; palea flat, narrow, densely longitudinally veined, apically pubescent. 

Marginal flowers 5-7, corolla ligulate with short tube and oblong or broadly elliptic lip, yellow or creammy white, 2-5 toothed, 5-8 mm long.sometimes absent;corolla of bisexual disc flower tubular, 5 dentate, yellow; anthers with entire or shallowly sagittate base and an acute apex; ovary inferior, style arms subacute, apically hairy.

In fruit the heads widened and elongate towards the top. Achenes slender 0.5 – 1.3 cm long, centrifugally decreasing in lengt, dorsally compressed, dark brown, merging into 2-3 apically recurved barbs; no pappus.

Biden pilosa L Plant

Origin : South Africa

Distribution : Pantropical before 1835 already naturalized in Java, has spread everywhere, except Kalimantan dan The Moluccas.

Ecology : A very commond weed, preferring moister soil; up to 2.300 m altitude. Flowers all the year round. In one week after shedding, 35 – 60% of the seeds germinate. Seed store for 3-5 years showed 80% germination. For germination, light and good aeration are necessary.

Propagation and Dispersal : Achenes, Exoepizoochorous


Biden pilosa L Flower
Agricultural importance :Weed of 31 crops in more than 40 countries, including Indonesia, South America and east Africa are the most infested. When herbicide have eradicated perennial grasses, this weed often becomes dominant.
Control : Herbicide, manual
Note :
Leaves are a famine food in Africa, but have a very low nutrient value. Dried buds in alcohol are said to be a remedy against toothache.

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