, pub-6935017799501206, DIRECT, f08c47fec0942fa0 Coffee Cultivars - PLANTER AND FORESTER

Coffee Cultivars

Coffee Cultivars
Arabica Coffee and Robusta Coffee 

Coffee Cultivars
Overview: The coffee plant is a woody perennial evergreen dicotyledon that belongs to the Rubiaceae family. It has a main vertical trunk (orthotropic) and primary, secondary, and tertiary horizontal branches (plagiotropic). Two main species of coffee are cultivated today. Coffea arabica known as Arabica coffee accounts for 75-80% of the world's production. Coffea canephora, known as Robusta coffee, is more robust than the Arabica plants, but produces an inferior tasting beverage with a higher caffeine content. The coffee plant can grow to heights of 10 meters if not pruned, but producing countries will maintain the coffee at a height reasonable for easy harvesting.

Arabica Coffee Catimor Bengkulu Sumatera Indonesia
Plant Development: Three to four years after the coffee is planted sweetly smelling flowers grow in clusters in the axils of the leaves. Fruit is produced only in the new tissue. 
 The Arabica species is self-pollinating, whereas the Robusta species depends on cross pollination. About 6-8 weeks after the flowers are fertilized, cell division occurs and the fruit remains as a pin head for a period that is dependent upon the climate. 
The ovaries will then develop into drupes in a rapid growth period that takes about 15 weeks after flowering. During this time the integument takes on the shape of the final bean. After the rapid growth period the integument and parchment are fully grown and will not increase in size. 
Arabica Coffee Flower
The endosperm remains small until about 12 weeks after flowering. At this time it will suppress, consume, and replace the integument. The remnants of the integument are what make up the silverskin. The endosperm will have completely filled the cavity made by the integument nineteen weeks after flowing. 
The endosperm is now white and moist, but will gain dry matter during the next several months. During this time the endosperm attracts more than seventy percent of the total photsynthesates produced by the tree. The mesocarps will expand to form the sweet pulp that surrounds the bean. The cherry will change color from green to red about thirty to thirty-five weeks after flowing. See Flash movie on Coffee Bean Development.
Arabica Coffee Fruit
Root System: The root system can extend 20-25 km in total length  and the absorbing surface of a tree ranges from 400 to 500 m2 . 
There are main vertical roots, tap roots, and lateral roots which grow parallel to the ground. 
Arabica Coffee Root system
The tap roots extend no further than 30-45 cm below the soil surface. Four to eight axial roots may be encountered which often originate horizontally but point downward. 
The lateral roots can extend 2 m from the trunk. About 80-90% of the feeder root is in the first 20 cm of soil and is 60-90 cm away from the trunk of the tree However,  that the greatest root concentration is in the 30 to 60 cm depth. The roots systems are heavily affected by the type of soil and the mineral content of the soil. 

To be thick and strong the root system needs an extensive supply of nitrogen, calcium and magnesium. During planting the main vertical roots are often clipped to promote growth of the the horizontal roots, which then have better access to water and added nutrients in the top soil.
Arabica Coffee leaf
Leaves: The elliptical leaves of the coffee tree are shiny, dark green, and waxy. The leaf area index is between 7 and 8 for a high-yielding coffee. The coffee plant has become a major source of oxygen in much of the world. Each hectare of coffee produces 86 lbs of oxygen per day, which is about half the production of the same area in a rain forest.


Arabica Seed Germination
For propagation of arabica coffees, ripe red cherries are collected, pulped, and the mucilage is removed by fermentation. The freshly picked seeds can either be planted immediately or dried for later use. Drying takes place on wire mesh trays in the shade. Dried seeds can be used up to a year or more if properly stored. Seeds are pregerminated by spreading on a sand bed and covering with moist burlap bag sacks or straw. The seeds are watched closely and removed as soon as radicals emerge. An alternative method is to mix the seeds with moist vermiculite or expanded polystyrene and keep in the polythene bag . 
Seedling Polybag
Growing Seedlings in Polybags
Polybags, made of black diothene (200-gauge), are commonly used and filled with a mixture of topsoil, well rotted cattle manure, course sand, gravel, coffee pulp, and coffee husks (Mitchell, 48). A ratio of three parts top soil to one part course sand and one part cattle manure is often used. A top dressing of nitrogen is applied by applying 20 g urea in 5.0 L of water per meter of bed

Arabica Seedling, ready to plant
Although many cultivars of C. arabica exist, C. arabica cultivar Arabica (includes var. typica) and C. arabica var. bourbon (named from the island of Bourbon where it was first cultivated) are considered to be the first. The other cultivars are believed to be a product of these two cultivars. Bourbon coffee was brought to the Americas by the French where it flourishes to this day. Although these two cultivars are planted, there are several other cultivars that have a significant importance in the world

Production and resistance generally governs the type of coffee that a farm will choose. Cup quality is a secondary factor most of the time.

Typica - This is the base from which many coffee cultivars have been developed. Like the other Arabica cultivars that have been developed from it, Typica plants have a conical shape with a main vertical trunk and secondary verticals that grow at a slight slant. Typica is a tall plant reaching 3.5-4 m in height. The lateral branches form 50-70° angles with the vertical stem. Typica has a very low production, but has an excellent cup quality.

Arabica Coffee S Line
Bourbon - Bourbon produces 20-30% more coffee than Typica, but less coffee than most cultivars. It has less of a conical shape than Typica, but has more secondary branches. The angles between the secondary branches and the main stem are smaller, and the branch points on the main stem are closely spaced. The leaves are broad and wavy on the edges. The fruit is relatively small and dense. The cherries mature quickly and are at a risk of falling off during high winds or rains. The best results for Bourbon are realized between 3,500-6,500 feet. Cup quality is excellent and similar to Typica

Caturra - Caturra is a mutation of Bourbon discovered in Brazil. It is a mutation with high production and good quality, but requires extensive care and fertilization. It is short with a thick core and has many secondary branches. It has large leaves with wavy borders similar to Bourbon. It adapts well to almost any environment, but does best between 1,500-5,500 feet with annual precipitation between 2,500-3,500 mm. At higher altitudes quality increases, but production decreases. 
Arabica Coffee Caturra Variety
Catuai - Catuai is a high yielding plant resulting from a cross between Mundo Novo and Caturra. The plant is relatively short, and the lateral branches form close angles with the primary branches. The fruit does not fall off the branch easily, which is favorable with areas with strong winds or rain. Catuai also needs sufficient fertilization and care.

Pache comum - Pache comum is a mutation of Typica first observed on the farm El Brito, Santa Cruz Naranjo, Santa Rosa, Guatemala. Many consider the cup to be smooth or flat. This cultivar adapts well between 3,500-5,500 feet.

Pache colis - Pache colis was found in Mataquescuintla, Guatemala in a farm consisting of Caturra and Pache comum. The fruits are very large and the leaves are roughly textured. Pache colis provides some resistance to phoma. It has secondary and tertiary branching, and typically grows to 0.8-1.25 m. It adapts well to altitudes of 3,000-6,000 feet with temperatures between 20-21°C.

Arabica Caffee, USDA Variety
Catimor - Catimor is a cross between Timor (resistant to rust) and Caturra created in Portugal in 1959. Maturation is early and production is very high with yields equal to or greater than the yield of other commercial cultivars. For this reason the method of fertilization and shade must be monitored very closely. The Catimor T-8667 descendants are relatively small in stature, but have large fruits and seeds. The Catimor line T-5269 is strong and adapts will to lower regions between 2,000-3,000 feet with annual rainfall over 3,000 mm. T-5175 is very productive and robust, but can have problems at either very high or very low altitudes. At low altitudes there is almost no difference in cup quality between Catimor and the other commercial cultivars, but at elevations greater than 4,000 feet Bourbon, Caturra, and Catuai have a better cup quality.

Kent - Used for its high yield and resistance to coffee rust.

Mundo Novo - Natural hybrid between Typica and Bourbon that was first found in Brazil. The plant is strong and resistant to disease. Mundo Novo has a high production, but matures slightly later than other cultivars. It does well between 3,500-5,500 feet with an annual rainfall of 1,200-1,800 mm.

Maragogype - Mutation of Typica discovered in Brazil. The Maragogype plant is large and is taller than either Bourbon or Typica. Production is low, but the seeds are very large. Maragogype adapts best between 2,000-2,500 feet. The cup characteristics are highly appreciated in certain markets.

Amarello - This cultivar, as its name indicates, produces a yellow fruit. It is not widely planted.

Blue mountain - A famous cultivar favored for its resistance to the coffee berry disease and ability to thrive in high altitudes. Grown in Jamaica and now in Kona, Hawaii. This cultivar, however, cannot adapt to all climates and maintain its high quality flavor profile.

Robusta Coffee Sumatera
Robusta Coffee Sumatera

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